Week 5

My final line drawing I wanted to not just reflect the logical thinking of the Osgood with the passion of creativity. The exercise is a good guide to building parameters but its the human response and interpretation that makes the final decisions. As Charles E. Osgood like semantics, I thought I would do my drawing of a heart and brain to represent the two factors. I also created an Osgood scale especially for this drawing and the artwork would be reflective of the role of a dice.

As a final response, I combined the heart and brain with the join line being the Osgood scale. as I developed this drawing I would keep checking that I was keeping within the parameters I had set myself. Even down to crumpling the paper at the end to make sure it had a messy appearance.

Osgood Scales

The semantic differential measurement technique is a form of rating scale that is designed to identify the connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts. The technique was created in the 1950s by psychologist Charles E. Osgood. The semantic differential technique measures an individual's unique, perceived meaning of an object, a word, or an individual.

This method offers a technical way towards the design process. For an example when describing a Landrover to someone they may use words like Tough and Rigid, whereas a Ferrari would be described as sleek and delicate.

To further this process you could start adding in a mood board element to visualise the words. Alternatively, you could add graphic elements into it to determine things such as type choice.

I made up three parameters to design a poster about me and this course. Having tough but not too tough type with a minimal/spacious layout and a cool colour pallet I come up with this:

A contrast to the parameters, giving a delicate, more crowded and warmer design produced this:

This method offers some advantages to designers when dealing with a client who is not been forthcoming with what they are looking for, the Osgood scale can help provide some positive questioning to them. It would also provide value to building an identity, Understanding and visualising the values of the brand and building referencing for a more concise mood board within the scale. It simply could be good to explore and challenge yourself by building your parameters and rolling a dice to get a result.

Using an online dice roller I generated the following results:

Creative Processes

Experts and not smarter than novices per se but have greater experience and underpinning knowledge that will give them methods to solve a problem faster. Although experts excel in their respective fields, there is an argument that they become rooted in their way of thinking.

Lubart and Mouchiroud (2003) write an account of Niels Bohr changing how to measure the height of a building using a barometer. Instead of using it to measure the pressure of the ground and of the top of the building. He creates different methods, which may or may not be feasible. I sometimes, in illustrator, instead of using grids in designs I might build squares and rectangles to measure elements out. This isn’t wrong as I have achieved the desired outcome, although I am sure someone would consider this deeply unprofessional. In Niels Bohrs story, when he protests his poor grade, the appeal professor asked if he knows the answers. He responds with the correct answer but further notes he was tired of just repeating back information for a good grade.

This story illustrates creativity in problem-solving, but also how others might see creative solutions as problematic and not taking the problem seriously.

Many examples of creativity are focused on divergent thinking, for this lots of potential solutions can be conceived but not all are realisable. Some of these solutions will work better than others. James Kaufman (2009) proposes that in addition to being original, a creative response to a problem must be useful. This is positive when creating a product, the operation of a toaster or an intuitive mobile app. But what about visual arts?

Analogical thinking involves observing a phenomenon which leads to the creation of solutions to practical problems.

George de Menstral invented Velcro after returning home from a nature hike with his dog and both having burrs on his trousers and the dogs fur. After examining them through a microscope he discovered the tiny hooks that had grabbed hold of the fabric. This discovery took seven years (1948-1955) to develop the Velcro patient. Processes would have been in place during a trial and error development.

Many researchers have proposed the idea of creative problem solving must have a process. Basadur (2000) proposed a four-stage process, with each step dived into 2 parts. This begins with the generation of a problem and ends with the implementation of the solution.

“If you want to have good ideas you must have many ideas. Most of them will be wrong, and what you learn is which ones to throw away” Linus Pauling

As important as knowledge is, sometimes too much knowledge can hinder creative problem-solving. Too much knowledge can hinder flexible thinking.

Steven Smith and coworkers (1993) experimented by showing examples to people before they solve the problem which could influence the nature of decision making. The subjects were given the tasks of creating a new creative toy based on a new life form on Earth. One group presented with three examples before starting. These examples all had four legs, an antenna and tail. The other group had no examples.

As you can see from the diagrams the difference in design thinking. The group with examples featured all the part seen in the reference images.

Alex Osborn (1953) developed the idea of brainstorming to encourage free thinking when generating ideas. The idea to say whatever comes into your head without critical of themselves or others when presented with a problem. This would increase participants to think outside the box.

Research proved that people working in groups would produce fewer ideas than if they did the brainstorming individually. (Mullen et al., 1991). This occurs for a number of reasons. In groups, some dominate the discussion so others are unable to participate. Also, despite the instructions to express any idea that comes to mind, being in a group can inhibit some people from expressing their ideas, possibly afraid of being judged. Others may pay attention to others in the group, which keeps them from coming up with ideas of their own.

Iain McGilchrist RSA talk: The divided brain and the making of the western world is an interesting insight into what makes us, humans tick.

Both sides of the brain perform different functions. The right hemisphere gives sustained, broad, open, vigilance, alertness where the left hemisphere gives narrow, sharply focused attention to detail. Looking out for things different from expectation. breaking down body language, metaphors, meanings etc. looking at everything on a one to one basis and not generalising everything it contacts. The left hemisphere is the doing side of the brain, the part that knows it has to make the tools to achieve its goal. It's the side that has an overview of how things work, it's the side that alerts the left of whats is happening for the left to analysis further.